Hard water is water with excessive amount of Calcium & Magnesium minerals present in the form of dissolved carbonates, sulphates or hydroxides. Scale is basically deposits of carbonates which is destructive and detrimental to household plumbing and prematurely ruins appliances like laundry machines and water geysers. In water heaters, hotter the water, the faster the formation of scale occurs. Hard Scale can also lower water pressure, restrict flow rates, and in dire cases, prevent water altogether from flowing through your home.
Laundry washed in hard water comes out of the machine stiff with dingy coloration. Dishes washed in hard water are foggy and come emerge from the rinse streaked with soap spots. Soap and cleaning products build up in a thick scum, as hardness minerals prevent soap from lathering properly. Hard water also is miserable to shower in as it dries out skin and hair alike. As a rule of thumb one can say that 1 mm scale on the heating coils of a boiler, increases the energy cost by 15%.